‘Understanding The Typical Injuries To Expect From RTA’s, The Workplace & Criminal Assaults’

For Personal Injuries practitioners and Employment Law advisors, we should know and understand the different types of injuries that our clients can sustain, whether in RTA’s, at work, or in any way caused by the civil negligence or criminal actions of a third party; what occupations and work related hazards result in injury, and what a carpel tunnel syndrome is…or a tenosynovitis…or an epicondylitis even!

In this video, Dr Gray explores the various mechanisms of trauma and how these lead to patterns of injury. For example, what injuries occur when a body suddenly decelerates, or what injuries might result from an airbag deploying? What about an explosion?

He looks at blunt and penetrating type trauma. In terms of penetrating trauma Dr Gray alludes to the various mechanisms and the resultant injuries. And in terms of blunt force trauma he discusses compression and deceleration forces and the common injuries sustained; how frontal, side and rear impact trauma can result in patterns of injury; and how safety devices including seatbelt restraints and airbag deployments can result in patterns of injury on impact.

Dr Gray then discusses a number of life threatening injuries that can occur in the multi-trauma patient.

Injuries Covered Include:

  • Penetrating trauma:
    • Incised vs stabbed wounds.
    • Firearm injuries:
      • shotgun vs bullet trauma.
    • Explosive injuries:
      • mixture of penetrating and blunt force trauma.
  • Blunt force trauma:
    • Lacerations, abrasions, bruises, scratches.
    • Compression forces and examples of injury.
    • Deceleration forces and examples of injury.
    • RTA’s – frontal, side, rear impact collisions and patterns of injury.
    • Restraints / seatbelts and patterns of injury.
    • Airbag deployment injuries.
    • Body injuries:
      • immediate life threatening injuries found on primary survey including airway obstruction, tension pneumothorax, open pneumothorax, massive haemothorax, flail chest and cardiac tamponade.


Dr Jim Gray is a Consultant in Emergency Medicine (EM). With extensive experience having worked in EM in both the UK and Ireland, he is a medico-legal expert witness in all aspects of injury and trauma.

Graduating in Medicine at TCD in 1996, Dr Gray trained initially gaining Surgical Membership and Associate Fellowship of the Royal College of Surgeons in Ireland (RCSI) in 2001 followed by higher training in the UK gaining a Fellowship of the Royal College of Emergency Medicine (RCEM) in 2006.

He returned to Ireland in 2006 taking up an EM Consultant post at Tallaght University Hospital and completed the Post–Graduate Diploma in Forensic and Legal Medicine at UCD in 2012. Dr Gray currently works as an EM Consultant at the University Hospital Limerick Group and the Blackrock Health Galway Clinic as well as medico-legal clinics at Cherrywood in Dublin.

Dr Gray lectures and attends courses and conferences regularly keeping abreast of current trends, clinical practice and continuing professional development. He is an Adjunct Senior Clinical Lecturer in EM at the University of Limerick as well as a Senior Examiner for the Royal College of Emergency Medicine in London, UK.

Dr James Phelan Gray MB, BCh, BAO, BA, AFRCSI, DFLM, FRCEM

Category of CPD: Category A (General)
Duration: 0.75 Hours


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